About Mongolia: Frequently Asked Questions

Is Mongolia part of China?

The short answer is No. Mongolia is not part of China or any other country. It is an independent country, sandwiched between China and Russia. After the Qing dynasty collapsed in 1911, Mongolia declared independence and achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921.

Is Mongolia part of Russia?

Mongolia is neither part of Russia, nor China. Mongolia is an independent country. But Mongolia used to depend on Russia economically after finding its independence. That’s why many Russian products are used daily and school kids are required to learn Russian in school today. Despite being an independent country, Mongolia is still dependent in many aspects on the major powers – China and Russia.

Is Mongolia a communist or a democratic country?

After a peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, Mongolia established itself as a democratic country and began holding free, multi-party elections. So the politics of Mongolia is considered to be a semi-presidential multi-party representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister, who leads the cabinet/government.

Is Mongolia a developed country?

Mongolia is not a developed country, but rather on its way to becoming one. After being transformed into a democracy, the private entities have grown accordingly with the country’s GDP, expanding the economy. Today Mongolia engages in international trade with 129 countries, trade deficit being positive as of June 2022. However, there is an urgent need for Mongolia to diversify its mining sector-independent economy. Plus, the judicial system and government efficiency are getting worse due to the high level of bribery and injustice.

Is Mongolia a Muslim country?

Mongolia is not a Muslim country. In fact, the main religion in Mongolia traditionally has been Mongolian Buddhism and Mongolian Shamanism. Today, little less than half of the citizens claim to be Buddhists. It is said that Mongolians have been Buddhists since the 16th century. However, Mongolians are open and respectful towards other religions as well.

Is there an Amazon store in Mongolia?

Physical Amazon stores are not present in Mongolia. The 58 counties Amazon is present in don’t include Mongolia. But it’s possible to order from Amazon online even though the shipping fee is quite high. There are cargo and shipping companies that help with online orders from the United States and other countries.

Is the Western Union available in Mongolia?

Western Union is available in Mongolia. Major banks in Mongolia offer Western Union as one of their international money transfer methods. In fact, you can check the available locations of Western Union services in Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia from their website here.

Is Mongolia part of NATO?

Mongolia is not one of the 30 members of NATO or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The cooperation and dialogue between NATO and Mongolia date back to 2005. They cooperate on shared security challenges like counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, or cyber security. Mongolia is considered to be one of a number of countries beyond the Euro-Atlantic area – often referred to as “partners across the globe”.

Where is Mongolia located on a map?

Mongolia is located in the north-central part of Asia on the map. It is bordered by China to the south, east, and west, and Russia to the north. It is easily found on the map as it covers an area of 1,564,115 sq km, which is not small.

What is Mongolia’s current population?

Mongolia’s current population is around 3.4 million as of June 2022. More than half of the population lives in Ulaanbaatar city, making it the most densely populated city in Mongolia.

What is the Mongolian national currency?

Mongolian official currency is tugrug, which also goes by tögrög or tugrik. The symbol is ₮, and the currency code is MNT. ₮1 can be subdivided into 100 möngö. The Bank of Mongolia issues and manages the currency. Currently, the lowest denomination in regular use is the 10-tögrög note and the highest is the 20,000-tögrög note. As of June 2022, one US dollar is equal to 3,121 MNT.

What is Mongolia’s capital?

Ulaanbaatar, also pronounced Ulan Bator is the largest and the capital city of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar is located at the heart (north-central part, to be exact) of Mongolia – Töv province. It can be found in the north-central part of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar is the financial, cultural, and political center of the country. It’s located on the shore of the Tuul River, surrounded by four sacred mountains.

What is Mongolia’s climate like?

Mongolia has four different seasons throughout the year. Interestingly, each season is quite different from each other. The climate is quite continental: you will experience cold, dry, long winter and warm, comfortable, yet short summers. Mongolia is a great place to experience freezing winter filled with snow, and hot summer with lots of sunny days.

Most foreigners love the sunny weather in Mongolia. On average, you will experience 257 cloudless days a year, ideal for people who love sunny warm weather. The summer is short though. Overall, the weather is dry and windy all year round, which can be irritating at times.

What does Mongolia export?

Mongolia mainly exports its natural resources – mineral products abroad. The major export products are coal, copper, gold, crude petroleum, animal origin products, cashmere, wool, apparel, and so on. Major export markets are China and Switzerland as of 2022. It wouldn’t be too harsh to say that the Mongolian economy is dependent on China’s purchase of Mongolian coal and copper. Switzerland is the major purchaser of gold from Mongolia.

The vast amounts of herds are definitely an advantage to the undiversified Mongolian economy. Animal products including meat, hides, and skins are an inseparable part of the foreign trade. You probably know world-renowned cashmere and wool companies from Mongolia like Gobi Cashmere, Evseg Cashmere. etc.

What are the top tourist attractions in Mongolia?

There are beautiful tourist attractions in both the Mongolian countryside and Ulaanbaatar city. But must-see spots in Mongolia are Terelj National Park, Lake Khovsgol, Altai Tavan Bogd National Park, Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur (Lake), Genghis Khan Statue Complex, Gobi Desert, Karakorum and Erdene Zuu Monastery, Orkhon Valley, and major museums in Ulaanbaatar.

What is Mongolia’s time zone?

Time in Mongolia is officially represented by the Mongolian Standard Time (UTC+8:00). Interestingly, the far western provinces of Mongolia, which are Khovd, Uvs, and Bayan-Ölgii use UTC+07:00.

Why is Mongolia so undeveloped and poor today?

Many people know Mongolia of the Genghis Khan era, occupying half of the land – establishing the largest empire in history. Yet Mongolia today is merely a developing country sandwiched between the greatest powers of the world, caught up in bribes and injustice, hence suffering economically.

After being separated into three regions and unable to unite as one nation, Mongolia was ruled by the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty for around three hundred years after finally declaring independence. Even after struggling to find its independence, Mongolia came to depend upon its two neighbors, the major powers of the world. Up to date, Mongolia still depends on China and Russia economically in some ways. The experts warn of the risk of becoming too dependent on the authoritarian powers.

Aside from the external pressure, the country suffers from inefficient and unfair governmental activities. Mongolia is a high level of corruption and inflation, widening fiscal and external imbalances, an ever-increasing debt burden, and the majority of people living in poverty.

Why is Inner Mongolia part of China?

When the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty rose as a powerful nation in the 16th century, they used different political strategies and tactics to break the already split Mongolia. While Mongolia was split into three regions, the southern part of Mongolia (aka Inner Mongolia) was most vulnerable to the threat of the Qing Dynasty’s occupation. In the end, the powerful Qing Dynasty occupied all the regions of Mongolia by the end of the 17th century, southern Mongolia was the first to be overtaken as they were right at the border.

Followed by a massive revolution in China, the Qing Dynasty’s rule came to end in 1911. Though the Chinese insisted on keeping all the territories, Outer Mongolia fought hard to gain its independence with the help of other major powers, particularly the Soviet Union’s political leader Joseph Stalin. Unfortunately, Inner Mongolia stayed as part of China, up till today. Outer Mongolia from back then is the Mongolia you know today.

Why does Mongolia have a low population?

There are a lot of factors that influence the low population of Mongolia. The country has an area of 1,565,000 square kilometers while the population is only 3.38 million as of 2022. The annual growth rate of the population is around 1.6 percent. The population density in Mongolia is 2 per Km2 (5 people per mi2).

The low population can be explained by the economic stagnation, poverty, unemployment, and severe weather conditions, hence affecting the low birth rates. Only half of the Mongolians live in the urban area, mostly Ulaanbaatar city whereas the remaining nomads have to face the freezing winter and dry, warm weather of Mongolia – which is not an ideal place to raise children.

But the capital city could be much worse than the countryside. There are never sufficient kindergartens and schools, and the education gap between private and public schools is huge. The traffic jam, extreme pollution, and corruption in even admitting your child to a hospital or school are getting out of control. And these are just some examples. You’ll immediately notice that UB is filled with a bright young generation. But they are choosing to have fewer children due to an unsustainable environment to raise kids in Mongolia.

Does Mongolia have a navy?

Landlocked countries don’t have any navy in most cases. So Mongolia doesn’t have a navy. But there are several reasons a landlocked country may choose to maintain a navy, and around eight countries today choose to have a navy. Mongolia doesn’t have any ocean.

Does it snow in Mongolia?

It snows every winter in Mongolia. In fact, Mongolia is famous for having one of the coldest winters in the world.  Winter in Mongolia lasts for about four months, November to February. The temperatures can reach 15°C to -35°C during the coldest month of the winter. Most of the country is covered by snow and permafrost and all lakes and rivers are frozen.

Does Mongolia have a military?

Mongolia does have military power. The Mongolian Armed Forces are the collective name for the Mongolian military and the joint forces included. There are a total of five branches: the Mongolian Ground Force, Mongolian Air Force, Construction and Engineering Forces, cyber security, and special forces. As for the military strength, Mongolia is ranked 102 of 142 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review. It holds a PwrIndx* score of 2.4318 (a score of 0.0000 is considered ‘perfect’).

Does Mongolia celebrate Christmas?

Even though Christmas is traditionally a Christian holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus. But it is also considered a family holiday in modern times, celebrated by both Christians and Non-Christians. Christianity is not widespread compared to Buddhism, but some Mongolian people get together to celebrate Christmas every year. Some people don’t necessarily do a full-scale celebration but wish each other Merry Christmas on the 25th of December.

Does Mongolia allow dual citizenship?

According to the Mongolian Constitution, Mongolian citizen is not allowed to hold dual citizenship. If someone wants to be a Mongolian citizen, then he or she must renounce the citizenship of the other current nation.

Does Mongolia border Kazakhstan?

The short answer is no. The countries don’t share a common border, they are separated by small parts of Russia and China. Mongolia is only sandwiched between China and Russia.

Do Mongolians like Chinese?

When you look at the overall sentiment of Mongolians towards Chinese, it’s usually negative. It’s hard to give a definite answer about why Mongolians hate Chinese people. Some of the reasons include the shared history – China keeping the Inner Mongolia after discontently acknowledging Outer Mongolia’s independence and some Mongolians still consider the Chinese as descendants of Manchu who occupied the Mongolians for hundreds of year and too much economic dependence that China creating today, and so on.

But older generations seem to dislike Chinese mostly. Younger generation is open to acknowledge and respect other nations, one of them being the growing superpower China. Many young people see that it’s better to cooperate and mutually support each other rather than despising the whole nation because of indefinite problems.

Does Mongolia have tigers?

There is no tiger in Mongolia.

Does Mongolia have nuclear weapons?

Mongolia does not have nuclear weapons. Even though Mongolia is sandwiched between the major nuclear powers, Mongolia initiated to become a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and strengthened Mongolia’s declaration of nuclear-weapon-free status in 1998.

Even though Mongolia doesn’t have nuclear weapons or nuclear power plants, there is large reserves of uranium in Mongolia. Mongolia is cooperating with foreign companies to produce uranium today. Even if Mongolia doesn’t use its uranium deposits to build nuclear power plant, it can become a major export product then to be used by other countries who are trying to transfer to carbon-free nuclear energy.

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