Mongolia was officially founded in 1206 by Temuujin Yesukhei when he banded all of the tribes of Northeastern Asia. However, most people know of Temuujin by his title Chinggis Khaan rather than his actual name.
The territory of the Mongolian empire in 1206 encompassed most of modern day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia of China, parts of Manchuria, and Buryatia of Russia.
How Was Mongolia Founded?
Temuujin was the prince of the Borjigon clan, which his father Yesukhei Baatar commanded. However, Yesukhei was poisoned by his rival clan “Tatars” when Temuujin was fairly young, and he soon found himself enslaved by former friends and clansmen.
Temuujin was able to escape however and married with his betrothed fiance Borte from the Khongirad clan, which eventually led to his rise in power.
With time Temuujin gained enough support and influence to lead the Khongirad clan and fought alongside to unite the tribes and clans of Mongolia with his blood brother Jamukha.
They eventually realized there can only be one supreme ruler and their friendship eventually eroded. From 1201 until 1206, they fought for the dominion over Mongolia. It was 1206 when Jamukha was finally decisively defeated and captured by Temuujin.
When granted amnesty, Jamukha knew there would never be peace between them as long as one of them lived and thus asked for a bloodless execution (spilling royal blood was considered a sin).
Shortly thereafter, Temuujin was crowned Chinggis Khaan, meaning the king of kings in 1206 and became the sole ruler of the tribes / clans of the Eurasian steppe.